Archive | commuting in vancouver RSS feed for this section

Congestion Charging Based on Automobile Efficiency – A Means to Reshape the Greater Vancouver Regional District

24 Nov

This post on Pricetags reminded me of a post I penned back when I was blogging on LiveJournal through the 2000’s. In my opinion, it has become more relevant than in 2009, as none of these issues have been addressed, but will need to be tackled in the upcoming GVRD Transit Referendum.

Congestion charging, tolls, user pay, bike lanes, subways, trolleys, improving the downtown core, pedestrian malls, these are the infrastructure issues our urban region will need to address and make final decisions on in the referendum. The current model, where cars take up nearly half of our urban landscape and can drive almost anywhere, is not sustainable. The question is, “what do we as a region want, do we wish to remain conventionally North American and stay with status quo, even though much of North America is moving on, or do we want to be the leaders?”

Vancouver into and beyond the Olympics: An Initiative for a Global Hub City

Vancouver, 3 May 2006 (Original date of composition)

Congestion Charging: A Supply and Demand Instrument

A number of cities around the world have been implementing congestion charging zones in high-density areas for some time. The results of these initiatives speak for themselves; once over-crowded streets have been replaced with more liveable and workable spaces, allowing people to take back street space. Yet congestion charging has allowed for a host of other benefits, such as:

  1. Achieving Kyoto objectives;
  2. Reducing noise pollution;
  3. Improving air quality to the benefit of local human health;
  4. Increasing city revenue due to congestion charges, consequently allowing for subsidies for intensive mass public transit initiatives;
  5. Reducing city traffic;
  6. Creating opportunities for revitalizing zones once considered unworkable due to excessive automobile volume;
  7. Reducing the number of required road networks (due to less traffic), consequently creating opportunities for redevelopment of streets in the form of urban gathering points (public squares), parks, living spaces, and tax rich commercial ventures;
  8. Reducing the cost for maintaining and up-keeping overused road networks.

Congestion Charging in Vancouver

This document proposes Vancouver initiate a pilot congestion charging initiative in its CBD. This congestion charging zone would run along Main Street in the east, starting at Science World and continuing north along Main to Portside Park; in the west access would be controlled via Lion’s Gate Bridge, while to the south traffic control would be established on Cambie, Granville, and Burrard Street Bridges. [i]

As in cities that have already established congestion charging, all movement would be tracked using databases and CCTV’s at access points. Downtown Vancouver does have an advantageous topography for such an initiative, which due to limited access to its downtown area, does not need as many control points as say London, Helsinki, or Stockholm (all cities that have implemented congestion charging).

The Pillars of Congestion Charging

In establishing a congestion-charging zone, charging must be based on easily understandable criteria:

  1. The duration of the commute based on origin and destination;
  2. The fuel efficiency of the vehicle;
  3. The time of day of the commute.

In North America the first item is relatively well understood. It is for the most part already applied on many freeway tolls in the United States and parts of Canada. Many Vancouver motorists have at some point utilized a toll highway, and understand charges are based on how long they are on a road, and how far they travel on it. Applied to a congestion-charging zone, those with digital vehicle plates registered from farther away (up to a set limit) will pay more than those with plates from inside or near the congestion zone.

Charging based on automobile fuel efficiency is still a relatively novel idea in North America. The concept implies charging rates according to the fuel efficiency of a vehicle, as well as whether the vehicle is registered as part of a car pool or cooperative network programme. Based on this system, commuters driving large inefficient cars pay more, whilst those carpooling or using coop cars, driving electric cars (this is up for debate, as electric cars are not as efficient as one is led to believe), or riding public transit pay the least. An effective database can tie these variables into a calculation.

The last item, charging based on time of day, means that congestion-charging simply applies to the private automobile what mass transit companies around the world are already using to mitigate overcrowding on transit at certain times of the day. Essentially drivers using road networks during rush hour pay more than those using roads at off peak times. The idea is based on the premise that the user pays, but also works to encourage commuters to find innovative ways to avoid utilising the road network during these times, unless absolutely necessary.

These three pillars of congestion-charging, backed by digital licence plates (already in implementation), CCTV, and a flexible database, will provide for reduced urban congestion, greater security, and improved human health in Metro Vancouver.

The benefits of implementing congestion charging in Vancouver will not only make the city more liveable, thus ensuring its lead as the most desirable place to live in, according to The Economist and the UN, it will also provide much needed revenue to help finance future public transit initiatives that will in turn get more people out of their cars and encourage further private sector investment in the city.

A prospective long-term benefit, yet to be explored, is the potential to reduce the number of automobile access streets in the city – something only possible with reduced traffic due to congestion charging coupled with viable public transit alternatives. With a reduction in the number of streets the city could redevelop urban thoroughfares into mixed commercial and green spaces, thus providing additional revenue for the city through new property taxes and new land to sell for development.

Out of Congestion, Landmarks and Legacies

Vancouver has, since Expo in 1986, experienced a spectacular real estate boom bringing thousands of people into live-work environments in the city core. This has helped revitalize the city core; however, the city centre, when compared to other major centres, lacks diversity in the form and function of its work and living spaces.

With the upcoming Olympics, and the economic conjunction of booming real estate, low interest rates, high energy prices, and a high dollar (affording discounts on quality imports), the city has the opportunity to encourage the development of world class statement buildings that will stamp its image as the cultural and economic intersection of European, American, and Asian cultures.

Using congestion charging to increase city revenues, improve urban liveability, and ultimate reduce the amount of space dedicated to automobiles will not only provide immediate revenue to the city, but it will also provide new space to initiate legacy and landmark developments. These developments, once completed, will further add to city revenues in the form of property taxes, tourism revenues, and unforeseen spin-offs.

The types of development the city could consider to replace urban thoroughfares:

  • The development of an integrated entertainment and theatre district to consolidate Vancouver theatre in a central area, as is the case in cities such as Buenos Aires, London, New York, and Montreal;
  • The development of a museum and design corridor dedicated to experimental design in architecture, as was successfully achieved in Bilbao, Spain;
  • The development of a north-south pedestrian, trolley, and non-motorized corridor incorporating commercial space and city piazzas;
  • The development of a statement boulevard space incorporating natural space with new urban developments;
  • The construction of urban spaces dedicated to knowledge industries in design, media, IT, and biotechnology.

Regardless of what themes are assembled, all efforts must ensure that this long term initiative give priority to experimental design that breaks away from the form of architecture that has dominated Vancouver’s skyline since the end of Expo in 1986.

Conclusion

Apart from increasing city revenues as well as reducing automobile traffic, congestion charging also provides the financial and logistical means for reshaping any urban space, thus affording cities the manoeuvrability to turn once unusable spaces into opportunities for the development of landmark legacy developments.

Vancouver, due to the factors outlined in this document, has the unique opportunity to be the first city in North America to use congestion charging to achieve greater liveability and sustainability, whilst also establishing itself as the epicentre for urban legacies.

[i] http://maps.google.ca/?hl=fr&q=vancouver&f=q&ll=49.285332,-123.109961&spn=0.027881,0.107803&om=1

Advertisements

Protective Barriers for Dogs, but not for Cyclists

17 Nov

I am one of hundreds of cyclists who ride the Stanley Park causeway on a nearly daily basis, and each time I never know if it will be the last time.

The causeway, as I have blogged about before, has no official space for cyclists, rather bikes and electric scooters share the same sidewalk as pedestrians. Adding to the problem is there is no barrier separating the narrow sidewalk from vehicle traffic.This situation has led to a number of serious accidents, including fatalities, where pedestrians (of all ages) and cyclists (of all ages) have collided and ended up on the causeway, crushed by a vehicle. Pedestrians and bikers have no alternate route to get to Stanley Park and the downtown, as the Seabus is at Lonsdale Quay, and buses are only designed to take two bikes at a time. Operated by the province, the roadway is the only link from the North Shore to the city centre.

This past week another dog sailed over the side of BC place, the result of a negligent owner ignoring signs and letting his large dog wander the public space without a leash. BC place has promised it will immediately construct a barrier to ensure this does not happen again. BC place is run by the provincial government.

Does this mean dogs who are off leash in on leash areas have more rights than cyclists, motorists, and pedestrians? How come the province won’t build a protective barrier on the causeway, but will do so at BC Place?

Vancouver’s 2nd Narrows Bridge by Bike

25 Aug
[ Tags | , , , , , ]

I’ve lived in Vancouver on and off since 1988, of which most of that time has involved either living on the North Shore, or working there. Despite this, I have embarrassingly never ridden or walked across the Iron Workers Memorial Bridge, also known as the 2nd Narrows Bridge. So earlier in June I decided to take the plunge and bike east, rather than west, to get from Lower Lonsdale to a meeting in East Vancouver.

Getting to the 2nd Narrows Bridge by bicycle has a decidedly retro feel to it, reminiscent of how it was to ride a bike in a North American city in the 1990’s. Most of the ride involves either riding steep uphills to bypass extensive road works, or navigating a minefield of roads filled with belching cars and trucks. The section below is part of a enormous road configuration that will eventually move vehicle traffic away from the rail yards up to the hillside – a much needed upgrade, which will move motorists off a roadway that runs dangerously in the shadow of passing rail cars.
2014-06-09 17.32.16
2014-06-09 17.31.45

The bike lane through this area is non-existent; however, I do have the impression that one will be in place once the road works are completed later this autumn.

East of this area one is forced to ride on the sidewalk, or share crammed roads with commercial vehicle traffic.

Access to the bridge is via a narrow onramp sidewalk.

2014-06-09 17.46.09
2014-06-09 17.46.15

The bridge crossing itself is terrifying. Sidewalks are fortunately being upgraded, but in the interim, for the next two years cyclists and pedestrians are forced to share 1.25m of space, with minimal railings on each side. The space is so tight that I could not take any photos when bikes were around, as everyone would have to stop and wait while I took pictures. It also meant cyclists coming from opposite directions had to dismount in order to pass each other, unless they felt comfortable enough balancing between a terrifying drop to the bay below and the murderous freeway traffic on the other side. It was also rush hour and there were as many as 50 bikes on the bridge deck during my crossing. Some of the bikers seemed to be seasoned pros who had no problem passing each other without dismounting, I felt I should have been wearing a “I’m new, please don’t yell at me” shirt.

Yes, as much as I dislike cars, cyclists can be just as impatient and nasty as the worst of motorists. Just because someone is peddling two wheels doesn’t mean they suddenly become all honey and love. Some of the prickliest of commuters I have met have been cyclists wearing way too much spandex littered with expensive bicycle adverts.

The bride affords some stunning views, some of them so exposed that I got a good rush of vertigo just around midspan.

2014-06-09 17.46.20
2014-06-09 17.46.02
2014-06-09 17.46.05

On the south end of the bridge there is a tiny memorial to the Iron Workers who died when the bridge collapsed during construction. Most people will never visit the memorial or even know where it is, as the platform is jammed beside the sidewalk and the freeway curb.

2014-06-09 17.51.47
2014-06-09 17.51.27

Leaving the bridge, one descends a steep series of switchback turns, down into a quiet industrial zone behind the grain towers and the Vancouver Shipyards. Traffic here is light, with numerous bikes passing on their way up to the bridge to the North Shore. A lovely separated bikeway takes one past Brighton Pool, where I stopped for a brief break. I’d never visited there before, and while the pool is nothing in comparison to Kits or 2nd Beach pools, it does have a stunning setting and gorgeous views.
2014-06-09 17.59.24
2014-06-09 17.59.30
The ride up the Vancouver hillside is a surprisingly steep one, indeed I often forget how much of an elevation change there is between the water and the communities up at 1st avenue and further south. On my way to my destination I spent a good 20 minutes meandering through leafy streets lined with the finest of East Vancouver’s Queen Anne era homes, stopping occasionally for photos and to catch my breath.

A lovely ride indeed, but I will hold off doing it again until the new bike infrastructure is in place on the 2nd Narrows Bridge and in North Vancouver.

The Way Back from North Vancouver Lonsdale to Kitsilano

19 Aug
[ Tags | , , , , , , ]

My ride home follows more or less the same route, with some modifications. The most challenging part of the trip is navigating the rush hour traffic off the North Shore, which can be mayhem, especially if there has been an accident on one of the bridges. This may seem a rare occurrence, but in fact between the two of them, there are accidents on the bridges on a daily basis. At rush hour this can mean chaos, the kind of chaos that ultimately got me out of a car.

This is an area just entering the lower road (1st Street) from Marine Drive and 3rd Street. It has morphed into a substantial construction site as the City of North Vancouver and a developer swapped properties, giving City road works the south side of 1st, and the developer the north end. The result is a large high density project, which upon completion will hopefully do a lot to improve Marine Drive, one of the North Shore’s ugliest stretches of road. For the time being it is a dangerous section of road, where trucks and and cars often cross into the cycle lane, so much so that the lane paint has disappeared.

2014-06-03 09.02.19

On 1st Street the bike lane is littered with obstacles – signs, bumps, parked cars and trucks.

2014-06-03 15.24.50

2014-06-03 15.26.50
The ride after this section is perfect to the start of the Lions Gate Bridge deck. Apart from an errant dog, the Spirit Trail is open sailing, populated with cyclists, walkers, and joggers most of the year.

2014-06-03 15.37.23

Part of the Provincial Highway 99 network, the Causeway and Lion’s Gate Bridge crossing is typically terrifying and should come with a parachute. As usual the sidewalk is shared between cyclists and pedestrians. Pedestrians can walk in either direction, which means more often than not one comes across a pedestrian oblivious to the world, listening to his music, sunglasses on, walking with his back to vehicle and cycle traffic – insanity. Only in British Columbia, “The Best Place on Earth” can pedestrians walk wherever they please without being responsible for their own and others’ safety. The results of such lawlessness can be fatal, as on this stretch of the causeway, where a cyclist was killed trying to avoid an mindless pedestrian.

2014-05-30 18.18.42
2014-05-30 18.16.59

Cyclists easily gather speed on the causeway, and since the sidewalk is narrow, traffic is loud, and bushes are overgrown, communication between cyclists and pedestrians is challenging – I personally use an air horn, which is useless when a walker has their back to me and is engrossed in their telephone.

The causeway ends here.

2014-05-30 18.22.49
2014-05-30 18.22.55
No barrier separating cyclists from death at the hands of a wobbly SUV.

The cycle through the West End is a bit busier than in the morning, as most people are out of bed and on the seawall, especially if the sun is showing its face. The most congested area of the Seawall is at the Cactus Club, where cyclists, cars, and pedestrians converge on several square meters of space. This area was not the most intelligently designed, and it still bewilders me as to why Vancouver has not considered removing one of the 7 lanes of roadway that connect Beach Road with Denman to widen the seawall in that area.
2014-06-03 15.55.48
Getting from the West End to Burrard Bridge has its challenges, involving riding Beach/Pacific Roads up to the start of the bridge. There is often congestion on Pacific, and motorists almost always speed to get to the lineup as fast as possible.
2014-06-03 15.59.07

Burrard Bridge is currently undergoing a renovation, the first in its 81 year history, as far as I know. The roadwork has caused some delays and inconvenience for motorists, this despite the fact the city has made it abundantly clear that Granville Bridge is just two blocks away and has 4 lanes of mostly empty road – people prefer to sit in traffic rather than try a different route.

2014-06-03 16.03.45
2014-06-03 16.02.53
2014-06-03 16.03.00

While the bridge work is still ongoing, the south end of the bridge has been completed. The result is a drastic improvement from the parking lot that once was the gateway to Kitsilano. The new layout moves cars, pedestrians, and cyclists safely and efficiently, all while requiring less road space.

These are a couple of pictures from before, when cyclists and pedestrians shared the sidewalk.

1566202

And when the tree and Kitsilano welcome sign sat in the middle of 12 lanes of converging traffic.

entering-kitsilano-area-of-vancouver-at-the-south-end-of-the-burrard-bridge

And this is how it looks today.

2014-06-06 08.59.23
2014-06-06 08.59.27
2014-06-06 08.58.23

There is still work to do on the Kitsilano side. The Park Board bungled the plan to implement a bike lane in Kitsilano Park, and Cornwall still has no bike lane to connect the bridge to the bike way on Point Grey; however, this is a work in progress. The Councils, mayors, and Squamish Band should be commended for their vision in working to building a safe pedestrian and cycle network in Vancouver and the North Shore. Now if only the Province would get on board and fill in the gaps.

To follow, time for the “big league”, your merry cyclist changes it up and goes 2nd Narrows!

My Commute from Kitsilano to North Vancouver Lonsdale – There

12 Aug
[ Tags | , , , , , , , , , ]

A recent series of articles in the Globe and Mail on commuting and transit caught my attention today (1). While I no longer really read Canadian “newspapers”, as the quality of the journalism pales in comparison to the likes of the Guardian, the Economist, or Le Monde, they unfortunately remain one of the few options for Canadian news.

Journalism in Canada is sick and rotten, it is the most concentrated of all media agglomerations in the developed world, far outscoring the United States for concentration of the press in the hands of the few (1). Canada has become a model for pervasive digital convergence, where newspapers have become a tiny piece of a content pie owned and channeled through just a handful of major portals: Bell, Rogers, Postmedia, Shaw and Quebecor. In some regions of the country the reader has literally no choice, as is the case in Vancouver and Montreal, where the news media is entirely owned by a single source – Quebecor in Montreal and Postmedia in Vancouver.

I digress, back to those Globe and Mail articles. As a two bridge commuter I have tried everything to make my journey as efficient as possible – car, bus, metro, ferry, bike, you name it. After years of driving I gave up my car to go with transit. This was motivated by bridge traffic fatigue, rising gas prices, and the cost of running a car. This option did not last, as I soon tired with sitting on crowded buses stuck in traffic, and grew frustrated with being forced to buy a two zone pass even though my commute was only one stop outside of my zone. Truth be known, I have long been a proponent of touch cards and fare gates used by sophisticated transit systems such as Transport for London, or Transantiago, where fare is charged by distance travelled and not by arbitrary zone maps (2).

So I eventually gave up on transit and switched to cycling. This option has provided certain benefits, with the obvious ones being that I no longer have to spend time and money on running a car, or money on a two zone transit pass. One unexpected benefit is I now need to eat copious amounts of homemade cookies in order to keep weight on – something unfathomable when I was a motorist. 2014-05-27 22.40.33
Yet cycling is not all cookies and cream, it is a battle against rain, cars, sleet, sun, and other bikes. From April through to October the levels of rush hour congestion on certain bike routes approaches the intolerable, with pinch points on the seawall and Burrard Bridge. These congestion zones are prone to accidents, as everyone converges together in a cacophony of bicycles and scooters. November’s cold rain puts out the party and empties the streets for most of the winter.

So what about my bike commute, what is it like? I start my day at here, on one of Vancouver’s most beautiful streets in one of Canada’s most rarest of neighbourhoods.
2014-06-03 16.19.42
Here the streets are narrow, the blocks are small and on a grid, and the scale is perfect for a pedestrian and a cyclist.
2014-06-03 16.16.34
I consider myself fortunate to live in such a place, but also find it inherently unfair that other Canadians do not have the option to also be able to live like this. This is something government and Canadians need to address. It requires bold leadership and a real cohesive plan from the levels of government with money and power: Ottawa and Victoria.

My commute takes me from Kitsilano to the city core over Burrard Bridge. This is where it gets tricky – squeezing everyone into the space of a sidewalk. This picture was taken at 9:15, so the rush hour crowd was long gone.2014-06-06 08.59.23In the morning there can be upwards of 30 cyclists converging at the south end of the bridge, and there is usually at least one who left home late and is in a hurry.2014-06-06 09.00.46

From the bridge I turn south down the alleyway to access the seawall, which at the present time does not link up to the bridge. 2014-06-06 09.04.42As a result I ride along Beach Road to the intersection at Pacific and then take the sidewalk to reach the seawall, as the alternative would be to try making a left turn from Pacific – not ideal at rush hour.

The Seawall connects nicely with a shared bike road route across the West End to Stanley Park and under the Causeway. From there I head North along Pipeline Road, across the wooden bridge and up one of the trails to the head of Lion’s Gate Bridge. This section of the route only has one tricky area, which requires expert navigation across Pipeline Road to the wooden bridge. 2014-06-06 09.20.21Many motorists speed on Pipeline as they use it as a shortcut to get to Lion’s Gate Bridge; they are also not expecting cyclists to turn left to the wooden bridge, as while it is marked as a one way, it is open to bikes. 2014-06-06 09.20.29The grade up to Lion’s Gate Bridge is very steep, but it is a short trip and much nicer than the noise and fumes from riding up the causeway alongside the vehicles.2014-06-03 08.39.13

Riding Lion’s Gate is not for the faint hearted. The sidewalks are narrow, pedestrians walk with their backs to you and are often looking at their phones and listening to music, completely disconnected from their surroundings.
2014-06-03 08.47.42
This has lead to accidents and fatalities. Someone we know of was killed on the bridged when he lost control of his bike and ran into one of those steel cables – no padding on them, which means not even slow speeds and a helmet can save you.

The downhill from the top of the bridge to the North Vancouver is straight and narrow. In the winter I dislocated my shoulder when I pedestrian abruptly walked into me and knocked me over – luckily I was going slowly and was able to fall on the sidewalk and not into traffic or over the side of the bridge.

Once in North Vancouver the ride is a mixed bag. There is a brief section on Marine Drive before going down Tatlow to the Spirit Trail, which is one of the best cycle pedestrian paths I have ever had the pleasure to ride on.
2014-06-03 15.31.45
It is separated from cars and wends its way through leafy suburban streets and is wide enough for everyone to have fun. Unfortunately the trail comes to an abrupt end as it throws you back into traffic at Welch and 1st.
2014-06-03 08.59.24
In my early days I used to take the bridge over the railway line at this intersection to connect with the “bikeway”; however, I soon avoided this as it takes longer and it also throws you into the automall – not a good place for a bicycle. The alternative – the one I take – is to stay on 1st, which becomes steadily worse as both it and the “bikeway” converge onto Third Street. Ah yes, Third Street, another example of a lack of urban planning.
2014-06-03 15.21.49
Anyone going east or west on the North Shore has just two primary options, this one, or the Trans Canada Upperlevels Freeway. Needles to say this stretch of road is always jammed with SUVs, trucks, and cars, while pedestrians, skateboarders, cyclists, and poles are forced to share a one metre wide sidewalk and avoid certain death by falling into traffic.

The horrid section of Third Street is thankfully only 3 blocks long, coming to an end at Forbes, where bikes and pedestrians are given the short end of the stick at the poorly designed intersection.

The last few blocks to the office take me through a small successful area of development at Lower Lonsdale, made up of mostly medium density and narrow leafy streets. One still needs to be alert riding here, as North Shore drivers are not known for their respect of pedestrians or cyclists, nor for their patience – certainly a result of the evolution of most of North and West Vancouver into large suburban sprawl that is entirely dependent on cars.

To follow: My Commute – back

(1)http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/vancouver-gridlock-costs-commuters-87-hours-a-year-study-shows/article18958517/
(2)http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/08/13/concentration-media-ownership-canada_n_1773117.html
(3) https://www.google.ca/maps/@49.3172354,-123.0985767,15z